Validation of the Russian Version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-Ru) and Normative Data

by Evgenia Ivanova, PhD; Anzalee Khan, PhD; Lora Liharska, MS; Alexander Reznik, MD, PhD; Sergey Kuzmin, MD; Olga Kushnir, MD, PhD; Alexey Agarkov, MD, PhD; Nikolay Bokhan, MD, PhD; Tatiana Pogorelova, MD, PhD; Olga Khomenko, MD; Ksenia Chernysheva, MD, PhD; Margarita Morozova, MD, PhD; George Rupchev, PhD; Taisia Lepilkina, PhD; Alexander Ozornin, MD, PhD; Nina Ozornina, MD, PhD; Nikolay Govorin, MD, PhD; Anna Malakhova, MD, PhD; Natalia Hmara, MD; Aksana Shylava, MD, PhD; Artsiom Hryhoryeu, MD; Nataljya Ivanchikova, MD; Irina Raevskaya, MD; Pavel Gusak, MD; Marina Skugarevskaya, MD, PhD; and Lewis A. Opler, MD, PhD

Drs. Ivanova and Khan and Ms. Liharska are with VeraSci (Neurocog Trials) in Durham, North Carolina. Dr. Ivanova is also with Cronos CCS in Lambertville, New Jersey. Dr. Khan is also with Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research in Orangeburg, New York. Dr. Reznik is with Moscow Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital No. 5 in Moscow, Russia. Dr. Kuzmin is with the Smolensk Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital, Smolensk, Russia. Dr. Kushnir is with St. Nicholas Psychiatric Hospital in St. Petersburg, Russia.Drs. Agarkov, Bokhan, Pogorelova, Chernysheva, and Khomenko are with the Mental Health Research Institute of Tomsk National Research Medical Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Tomsk, Russia. Drs. Morozova, Lepilkina, and Rupchev are with the Mental Health Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Science in Moscow, Russia. Drs. Ozornin and Ozornina are with Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital named after V.H. Kandinsky in Chita, Russia. Dr. Govorin is with the Chita State Academy of Medicine in Chita, Russia. Dr. Malakhova is with the Sverdlovsk Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital in Ekaterinburg, Russia. Drs. Shylova and Hmara are with Gomel State Medical University in Gomel, Belarus. Drs. Hryhoryeu, Ivanchikova, Raevskaya, and Gusak are with the Gomel Regional Psychiatric Hospital in Gomel, Belarus. Dr. Skugarevskaya is with the Republican Research and Practical Center for Mental Health in Minsk, Belarus. Dr.
Opler was with Long Island University in Brooklyn, New York (†deceased).

Funding: This study was financially supported by Prophase, LLC (New York, NY) from 2011 to 2015.

Disclosures: The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article.

Innov Clin Neurosci. 2018;15(9–10):32–48

Abstract: Objective: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is widely used to assess psychopathology. The Russian version (PANSS-Ru) has not been validated, and normative data for the Russian-speaking population currently do not exist. The aims of this study were to 1) complete linguistic validation for the PANSS-Ru, 2) perform psychometric validation of the Russian translation, and 3) present norms for the Russian and Belarusian population. Design: Validation and norms of the PANSS-Ru occurred in three stages—Stage I: linguistic validation; Stage II: psychometric validation of the translated version for 40 inpatients with schizophrenia and other psychoses; and Stage III: norms for 533 census-matched inpatients, outpatients, and healthy control subjects. Results: The rating criteria (PANSS-Ru), interview guide (SCI-PANSS-Ru), informant questionnaire (IQ-PANSS-Ru), and scoring form (PANSS QuikScore-Ru) were linguistically and psychometrically validated. Convergent validity between the PANSS subscale scores and total score with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale (CGI-S) were moderate (r=0.41–0.60) to high (r=0.61–0.80). Cronbach’s alpha (0.88) verified internal consistency, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) comparisons had a range of 0.83. Percentile normative data collected from 533 subjects are presented. Conclusion: This is the largest population-based study providing linguistic and psychometric validation of the PANSS-Ru. Normative data can provide clinicians with a benchmark of psychopathology and inform the efficacy of treatment interventions.

Keywords: Schizophrenia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), psychometric validation, normative data, Russia-Belarus


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Validation of the Russian Version of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-Ru) and Normative Data