Human and nonhuman primate data suggest that visuospatial working memory is mediated by a neural network that includes the prefrontal cortex. Simple working memory tasks are less complex than standard neuropsychological tests of frontal dysfunction. As such, they are less vulnerable to general performance factors such as amotivation and uncooperativeness in schizophrenic patients. These tasks thus hold promise as potential measures of frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia.

Keefe RSE, Lees-Roitman SE, Dupre RL. Performance of patients with schizophrenia on a pen and paper visuospatial working memory task with short delay.  Schizophrenia Research, 1997; 26(1): 9-14.